Regional Activities

Regional Activities

Regional - Africa

Legresley E, Lee K, Muggli M, Patel P, Collin J, Hurt R. British American Tobacco and the "Insidious impact of illicit trade" in cigarettes across Africa. Tobacco Control. 2008 Jul 10. doi:10.1136/tc.2008.025999

Otanez MG, Mamudu HM, Glantz SA. Tobacco companies' use of developing countries' economic reliance on tobacco to lobby against global tobacco control: The case of Malawi. Am J Public Health 2009 August 20, 2009:AJPH.2008.146217.

Otanez M, Mamudu H, Glantz S. Global leaf companies control the tobacco market in Malawi. Tobacco Control. 2007 Aug;16(4):261-269.

Otanez M, Muggli M, Hurt R, Glantz S. Eliminating child labour in Malawi: A British American Tobacco corporate responsibility project to sidestep tobacco labour exploitation. Tobacco Control. 2006 Jun;5(3):224-30.

Owusu-Dabo E, Lewis S, McNeill A, Gilmore A, Britton J. Smoking uptake and prevalence in Ghana. Tobacco Control 2009 Oct;18(5):365-370.  Available at: 

Owusu-Dabo E, Lewis S, McNeill A, Anderson S, Britton J, Gilmore A. Smoking in Ghana: A review of tobacco industry activity. Tobacco Control. 2009 Apr 8;[Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1136/tc.2009.030601

Patel P, Collin J, Gilmore A. "The law was actually drafted by us but the government is to be congratulated on its wise actions": British American Tobacco and public policy in Kenya. Tobacco Control. 2007;16:e1. doi:10.1136/tc.2006.016071

Sangave N. Malawi's Tobacco Paradox: Short Term Survival versus Long Term Languish. December 4 2014. Providence College: Fifth Annual Undergraduate Research Conference on Health and Society.

Tumwine J. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011 Nov;8(11):4312-4331.

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Regional - Asia/Russia

Alechnowicz K, Chapman S. The Philippine Tobacco Industry: 'The strongest tobacco lobby in Asia'. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii71-78.

Assunta M, Chapman S. A 'clean cigarette' for a clean nation: A case study of Salem Pianissimo in Japan. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii58-62.

Assunta M, Chapman S. 'The world's most hostile environment': How the tobacco industry circumvented Singapore's advertising ban. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii51-57.

Assunta M, Chapman S. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia.  Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii63-70.

Assunta M, Chapman S. A mire of highly subjective and ineffective voluntary guidelines: Tobacco industry efforts to thwart tobacco control in Malaysia. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii43-50.

Assunta M, Chapman S. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: A case study in duplicity. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii37-42.

Assunta M, Chapman S. The lightest market in the world: Light and mild cigarettes in Japan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008 May;10(5):803-10. doi:10.1080/14622200802023882

Bansal J, John S, Ling PM. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: Targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth. Tobacco Control 2005;14:201-206.

Bialous S, Mochizuki-Kobayashi Y, Stillman F. Courtesy and the challenges of implementing smoke-free policies in Japan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2006 Apr;8(2):2003-16.

Bobak M, Gilmore A, McKee M, Rose R, Marmot M. Changes in smoking prevalence in Russia, 1996-2004. Tobacco Control. 2006;15:131-35.

Charoenca N, Mock J, Kungskulniti N, Preechawong S, Kojetin N, Hamann SL. Success Counteracting Tobacco Company Interference in Thailand: An Example of FCTC Implementation for Low- and Middle-income Countries. Int.J.Environ.Res.Public.Health. 2012 Apr;9(4):1111-1134.

Chen A, Glantz S, Tong E. Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes: "Not medicine but less harmful"? . Tobacco Control. 2007 Apr;16(2):e3. doi:10.1136/tc.2006.016568

Chu A, Jiang N, Glantz SA. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China. Tobacco Control 2011 Jan 30.

Collin J, Le Gresley E, MacKenzie R, et al. Complicity in contraband: British American Tobacco and cigarette smuggling in Asia. Tobacco Control. 2004;12(Suppl 2):ii104-111.

Cussen A, McCool J. Tobacco promotion in the pacific: the current state of tobacco promotion bans and options for accelerating progress. Asia.Pac.J.Public.Health. 2011 Jan;23(1):70-78 

Dewhirst T, Lee W, Fong G, Ling P. Exporting an Inherently Harmful Product: The Marketing of Virginia Slims Cigarettes in the United States, Japan, and Korea. J.Bus.Ethics 2015 04/07:1-21.

Ding D, Hovell MF. Cigarettes, Social Reinforcement, and Culture: A Commentary on “Tobacco as A Social Currency: Cigarette Gifting and Sharing in China”. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2011 December 16.

Gilmore A. "Tobacco and transition: Understanding the impact of transition on tobacco use and control in the former Soviet Union." Tobacco Control. Reports on Industry Activity from Outside UCSF. Paper SovietUnion. Available at

Gilmore A, Collin J, McKee M. British American Tobacco's erosion of health legislation in Uzbekistan. BMJ. 2006;332:355-358. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7537.355 with extra material and references on site

Gilmore A, Collin J, Townsend J. Transnational tobacco company influence on taxation policy during privatization: The case of BAT in Uzbekistan. American Journal of Public Health. 2007;97(1). (epub ahead of print 30 Nov 2006 )

Gilmore A, McKee M. Moving east: How the transnational tobacco companies gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union. Part 1: Establishing cigarette imports. Tobacco Control. 2004;13:43-100.

Gilmore A, McKee M. Moving east: How the transnational tobacco companies gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union. Part II: Priorities and tactics in establishing a manufacturing presence. Tobacco Control. 2004;13:101-160.

Gilmore A, McKee M. Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union. Tobacco Control. 2005;14:13-21.

Gilmore A, McKee M, Collin J. The invisible hand: How British American Tobacco precluded competition in Uzbekistan. Tobacco Control. 2007 Aug;16(4):239-47.

Gilmore A, Pomerleau J, McKee M, Rose R, Haerpfer CEA. Prevalence of smoking in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Results from the living conditions, lifestyles and health study. American Journal of Public Health. 2004;94:2177-2184.

He P, Takeuchi T, Yano E. An overview of the China National Tobacco Corporation and State Tobacco Monopoly Administration. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 2012:1-6.

He P, Takeuchi T, Yano E. Analysis of a tobacco vector and its actions in China: the activities of Japan tobacco. Tobacco Induced Diseases 2010;8(1):13.

Holden C, Lee K, Gilmore A, Fooks G, Wander N. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American Tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization. Int. J. Health Serv. 2010;40(3):421-441.  

Hurt RD, Ebbert JO, Achadi A, Croghan IT. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia. Tobacco Control 2011 August 18.

Iida K, Proctor R. Learning from Philip Morris: Japan tobacco's strategies regarding evidence of tobacco health harms as revealed in internal documents from the American tobacco industry. Lancet. 2004;363:1820-24.

Kashiwabara M, Armada F. Mind Your "Smoking Manners": The Tobacco Industry Tactics to Normalize Smoking in Japan. Kobe J. Med. Sci 2013;59(4):E132-E140.

Kingman S. Hong Kong tobacco deaths presage vast China epidemic. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001;79:10.

Knight J, Chapman S. 'Asia is now the priority target for the world anti-tobacco movement': Attempts by the tobacco industry to undermine the Asian anti-smoking movement. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii30-36.

Knight J, Chapman S. 'A phony way to show sincerity, as we all well know': Tobacco industry lobbying against tobacco control in Hong Kong. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii13-21.

Krasovsky KS. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - Tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine. Tob Induc Dis. 2010 Aug 31;8:10.  

Lambert A, Sargent J, Glantz S, Ling P. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: Lessons for global tobacco control. Tobacco Control. 2004;13:379-387.

Lawrence S. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey. Tobacco Control. 2008 Oct 9;[Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1136/tc.2007.021782

Lawrence S, Collin J. Competing with kreteks: Transnational tobacco companies, globalisation and Indonesia. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii96-103.

Lee K, Collin J. "Key to the future": British American Tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China. PLoS Med. 2006;3(7):e228. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030228

Lee K, Gilmore A, Collin J. Breaking and re-entering: British American Tobacco in China 1979-2000. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii88-95.

Lee S, Holden C, Lee K. Are transnational tobacco companies' market access strategies linked to economic development models? A case study of South Korea. Global Public.Health. 2013 Jan 18.

Lee K, Kao W. Part II, Chapter 7: 'The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Contributions by five Asian countries'. In: Lee K, Pang T, Tan Y, editors. Asia's Role in Governing Global Health, Routledge; 2012.

Lee K, Kinh H, MacKenzie R, Gilmore A, Minh N, Collin J. Gaining access to Vietnam's cigarette market: British American Tobacco's strategy to enter 'a huge market which will become enormous.' Global Public Health. 2008;3(1):1-25.

Lee S, Lee K, Holden C. Creating demand for foreign brands in a ‘home run’ market: tobacco company tactics in South Korea following market liberalisation. Tobacco Control 2012 November 14.

MacKenzie R, Collin J, Sopharo C, al. e. Almost a role model of what we would like to do everywhere: British American Tobacco in Cambodia. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii112-117.

MacKenzie R, Collin J, Sriwongcharoen K. Thailand - lighting up a dark market: British American Tobacco, sports sponsorship and the circumvention of legislation. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2007;61(1):28-33. doi: 10.1136/jech.2005.042432

MacKenzie R, Collin J, Sriwongcharoen K, Muggli M. If we can just 'stall' new unfriendly legislations, the scoreboard is already in our favour: Transnational tobacco companies and ingredients disclosure in Thailand. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii79-87.

MacKenzie R, Collin J. ‘Trade policy, not morals or health policy’: The US Trade Representative, tobacco companies and market liberalization in Thailand. Global Social Policy 2012 August 01;12(2):149-172.

Muggli ME, Lee K, Gan Q, Ebbert JO, Hurt RD. "Efforts to reprioritise the agenda" in China: British American Tobacco's efforts to influence public policy on secondhand smoke in China. PLoS Med. 2008 Dec 23;5(12):e251. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050251

Nakkash R, Lee K. The tobacco industry's thwarting of marketing restrictions and health warnings in Lebanon. Tobacco Control 2009 Aug;18(4):310-316.

Nakkash R, Lee K. Smuggling as the "key to a combined market": British American Tobacco in Lebanon. Tobacco Control. 2008 Oct;17(5):324-31. doi:10.1136/tc.2008.025254

O'Sullivan B, Chapman S. Eyes on the prize: Transnational tobacco companies in China 1976-1997. Tobacco Control. 2000;9:292-302.

Perlman F, Bobak M, Gilmore A, McKee M. Trends in the prevalence of smoking in Russia during the transition to a market economy. Tobacco Control. 2007 Oct;16(5):299-305. doi: 10.1136/tc.2006.019455

Ross H, Stoklosa M, Krasovsky K. Economic and public health impact of 2007–2010 tobacco tax increases in Ukraine. Tobacco Control 2011 June 14.

Sankaran S, Hiilamo H, Glantz SA. Implementation of graphic health warning labels on tobacco products in India: the interplay between the cigarette and the bidi industries. Tob.Control 2014 Jun 20.

Tan YL, Foong K. Tobacco industry tangos with descriptor ban in Malaysia. Tobacco Control 2014 January 01;23(1):84-87.

Wen C, Chen T, Tsai Y-Y, Tsai S, Chung W, Cheng T, et al. Are marketing campaigns in Taiwan by foreign tobacco companies targeting young smokers?  Tobacco Control. 2005;14(Suppl 1):i38-44.

Wen C, Cheng T, Eriksen M, Tsai S, Hsu C. The impact of the cigarette market opening in Taiwan. Tobacco Control. 2005;14(Suppl 1):14-19.

Wen C, Peterson R, Cheng T, Tsai S, Eriksen M, Chen T. Paradoxical increase in cigarette smuggling after the market opening in Taiwan. Tobacco Control. 2006 Jun;15(3):160-5.

Zhong F, Yano E. British American Tobacco's tactics during China's accession to the world trade organization. Tobacco Control. 2007 Apr;16(2):133-7. doi:10.1136/tc.2006.018374

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Regional - Australia/Oceania

Ballard J. Chapter 4 - The politics of tobacco control in Australia: International template? In: Feldman Ea, Bayer R, editors. Unfiltered: Conflict over tobacco policy and public health. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2004.

Carter S. Going below the line: Creating transportable brands for Australia's dark market. Tobacco Control. 2003 Dec;12(Suppl 3):iii95-101.

Carter S. From legitimate consumers to public relations pawns: The tobacco industry and young Australians. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(Suppl 3):iii71-78.

Carter S. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(Suppl 3):iii79-86.

Carter S, Chapman S. Smoking, disease, and obdurate denial: The Australian tobacco industry in the 1980s. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(Suppl 3):iii23-30.

Chapman S, Byrne F, Carter S. "Australia is one of the darkest markets of the world": The global importance of Australian tobacco control. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(Suppl 3):iii1-3.

Chapman S, Carter S. "Avoid health warnings on all tobacco products for just as long as we can": A history of Australian tobacco industry efforts to avoid, delay and dilute health warnings on cigarettes. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(Suppl 3):iii13-22.

Chapman S, Carter S, Peters M. "A deep fragrance of academia": The Australian tobacco research foundation. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(Suppl 3):iii38-44.

Coombs J, Bond L, Van V, Daube M. Below the Line: the tobacco industry and youth smoking. Australasian Medical Journal 2011;4(12):655-673.

Cowie GA, Swift E, Borland R, Chaloupka FJ, Fong GT. Cigarette brand loyalty in Australia: findings from the ITC four country survey. Tobacco Control 2013 Sep 27.

Thomson G, Wilson N. Implementation failures in the use of two New Zealand laws to control the tobacco industry: 1989-2005. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy. 2005 Dec 14;2(1):32.

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Regional - Europe

Birkeland G, Birkeland V. Tobakksindustriens erstatningsansvar [Tobacco industry liability] [article in Norwegian]. Attachment 9: [Report on search of documents in the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository]. Norges Offentlige Utredninger 2000;16.

Birkeland V, Andreassen P, Duvaland L. Tobakksindustriens erstatningsansvar [tobacco industry liability] [article in Norwegian]. Attachment 10: [Report on search of documents in the Guildford Depository].  Norges Offentlige Utredninger 2000;16.

Bitton A, Neuman M, Glantz S. "Tobacco industry attempts to subvert European Union tobacco advertising legislation" (April 1, 2002). Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education. Tobacco Control Policy Making: International. Paper EU2002

Croghan I, Muggli M, Zaga V, Lockhart N, Ebbert J, Mangiaracina G, et al. Lessons learned on the road to a smoke-free Italy. Annali di Igiene 2011 Mar-Apr;23(2):125-136.

Gallopel-Morvan K, Moodie C, Hammond D, Eker F, Beguinot E, Martinet Y. Consumer perceptions of cigarette pack design in France: a comparison of regular, limited edition and plain packaging. Tobacco Control 2011 October 13.

Gilmore A, Radu-Loghin C, Zatushevski I, McKee M. Pushing up smoking incidence: Plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova. Lancet. 2005;265:1354-1359.

Helmert U, Hien W. The hidden collaboration between the occupational physicians and the tobacco lobby in Germany; Findings from the internal tobacco industry documents. Gesundheitswesen 2008;70(7):462-462.

Hiilamo H. Tobacco companies' tactics in the prevention of tobacco regulation in Finland. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka. 2002;12:199-213.

Hiilamo H. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland. Tobacco Control. 2003;12:414-23.

Hiilamo H. The fear of losing out: Tobacco industry strategies in Finland 1975-2001. Tampere: Tampere University Press; 2007.

Hiilamo H, Kahl U, Lambe M. The Philip Morris Nordic journalist program: Strategies, implementation and outcomes. Health Policy. 2008 Jun 25; 89(1):84-96. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2008.05.003

Hiilamo H, Glantz SA. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies. Tobacco Control 2011 December 23.

Joossens L, Sasco A, Salvador T, Villalbi J. [Women and tobacco in the European Union] [article in Spanish] Revista Espanola de Salud Publica 1999;73:3-11.

Kyriss T, Potschke-Langer M, Gruning T. [The German cigarette industry association--obstructing effective tobacco control in Germany]. Gesundheitswesen. 2008 May;70(5):315-24. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1078752

Le Gresley E, Muggli M, Hurt R. Movie moguls: British American Tobacco's covert strategy to promote cigarettes in Eastern Europe. European Journal of Public Health. 2006;16(5):505-508.

Lee C-Y, Glantz S. "The tobacco industry's successful efforts to control tobacco policy making in Switzerland" (January 1, 2001). Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education. Tobacco Control Policy Making: International. Paper Swiss2001

Lie JL, Willemsen MC, de Vries NK, Fooks G. The devil is in the detail: tobacco industry political influence in the Dutch implementation of the 2001 EU Tobacco Products Directive. Tobacco Control 2015 Sep 8.

Mejia AB, Ling PM. Tobacco Industry Consumer Research on Smokeless Tobacco Users and Product Development. American Journal of Public Health 2010 January 1;100(1):78-87.

Muggli ME, Lockhart NJ, Ebbert JO, Jimenez-Ruiz CA, Riesco Miranda JA, Hurt RD. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law. Tobacco Control 2010 Feb;19(1):24-30.

Perez-Martin J, Peruga A. [The International Association of Tobacco Growers attacks WHO] [article in Spanish] Revista Panamericana Salud Publica 2003;13:267-70.

Schiermeirer Q. German tobacco papers reveal lump sums for experts. Nature. 2005;435:866.

Shafey O, Fernandez E, Thun M, Schiaffino A, Dolwick S, Cokkinides V. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: Cigarette advertising and female smoking prevalence in Spain, 1982-1997. Cancer. 2004;100:1744-49.

Skafida V, Silver KE, Rechel BP, Gilmore AB. Change in tobacco excise policy in Bulgaria: the role of tobacco industry lobbying and smuggling. Tobacco Control 2012 Nov 10.

Soto Mas F, Jacobson HE, Fernandez E. Tobacco industry strategies to attract young smokers in Spain: a review of companies' internal documents. Adicciones 2011;23(4):327-334.

Soto-Mas F, Villalbi J, Granero L, Jacobson H, Balcazar H. [The tobacco industry's internal documents and smoking prevention in Spain][article in Spanish] Gaceta Sanitaria. 2003;17(Suppl 3):9-14.

Sroka W, Lorinczy M. The Tobacco Sector in Poland vs. the Czech Republic: an Analysis of the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis. Annals of 'Dunarea de Jos' University of Galati; Economics and Applied Informatics 2014.

Szilagyi T. Hungry for Hungary: Examples of tobacco industry's expansionism. Hungary: Health 21 Hungarian Foundation; 2006.

Szilagyi T, Chapman S. Tobacco industry efforts to keep cigarettes affordable: A case study from Hungary. Central European Journal of Public Health. 2003;11:223-228.

Szilagyi T, Chapman S. Hungry for Hungary: Examples of tobacco industry's expansionism. Central European Journal of Public Health. 2003;11:38-43.

Szilagyi T, Chapman S. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary. Central European Journal of Public Health. 2004;12:190-96.

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Regional - North/South America

Assunta M. Tobacco industry's ITGA fights FCTC implementation in the Uruguay negotiations. Tobacco Control 2012 May 26.

Barnes R, McCarthy J, Glantz S. "Tobacco control in Hawai'i: Progress in paradise" (july 14, 2008). Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education. Tobacco Control Policy Making: United States.  Paper Hawaii2008.

Barnoya J, Glantz S. Tobacco industry success in preventing regulation of secondhand smoke in Latin America: The "Latin project". Tobacco Control. 2002;11:305-14.

Bialous SA, Presman S, Gigliotti A, Muggli M, Hurt R. Response of the tobacco industry to the creation of smoke-free environments in Brazil. Rev.Panam.Salud Publica 2010 Apr;27(4):283-290.

Crosbie E, Sebrie EM, Glantz SA. Tobacco industry success in Costa Rica: the importance of FCTC article 5.3. Salud Publica Mex. 2012 Feb;54(1):28-38.

Drope J, Glantz S. British Columbia capital regional district 100% smokefree bylaw: A successful public health campaign despite industry opposition. Tobacco Control. 2003;12:264-68.

Lavack A, Clark G. Responding to the global tobacco industry: Canada and the framework convention on tobacco control. Canadian Public Administration. 2007 Spring;50(1):100-119.

Schneider NK, Sebrie EM, Fernandez E. The so-called "Spanish model" - Tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America. BMC Public Health 2011 Dec 7;11(1):907.

Sebrie E, Barnoya J, Perez-Stable E, Glantz S. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina. Tobacco Control. 2005;14:e2.

Sebrie E, Barnoya J, Perez-Stable E, Glantz S. "Tobacco industry dominating national tobacco policy making in Argentina, 1966-2005" Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education September 1, 2005. Tobacco Control Policy Making: International. Paper Argentina2005.

Sebrie E, Glantz S. "Accommodating" Smoke-free policies: Tobacco industry's courtesy of choice programme in Latin America. Tobacco Control. 2007;16(5):e6.

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