Our extensive Historical Photograph Collection includes some really fascinating images. Check out these from the UCSF Radiology Department.
The Washington-based Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL) recently debuted an amazing database of documents pulled from the files of Big Oil as well as our Truth Tobacco Industry Documents archive (TTID). The Smoke and Fumes website is a culmination of their investigation into climate misinformation campaigns which in turn led to a dive into our tobacco documents to look for industry intersections. And find them they did!
The Oil industry’s efforts to mislead the public about climate science are well documented. Amidst the ongoing investigations and recent wave of climate litigation, comparisons to Big Tobacco have been obvious yet Exxon and its associates have rejected these parallels. CIEL’s research into TTID reveals compelling evidence that the relationship between these two industries is “neither coincidental nor casual.” The connections between oil and tobacco date back nearly a century and our tobacco documents show these industries have a long history of shared marketing and advertising strategies, research interests, PR firms, and scientists. For instance, in the 1970s, the Chair of BAT also served on the Board of Directors of Exxon and RJ Reynolds once owned and operated an oil company, American Independent Oil, which engaged in industry-wide projects. In the late 1950s the oil industry lent their expertise in mass spectrometry to tobacco companies looking to test cigarette smoke for toxins and both industries attempted to engage in joint research on filters.
These are just a few examples CIEL pulled from the tobacco documents. If you head over to our search box and type in “Shell Oil”, “Exxon”, or even “Esso”, you’ll be amazed at the thousands of documents that are retrieved.
After all, “…the framers of the Constitution enjoyed the use of tobacco…how indignant they would have been at any attempt to infringe on that personal right through taxation, restrictions and prohibitions!” - the Tobacco Institute (1978)
In 1978, the Tobacco Institute, the now defunct lobbying arm of the US Tobacco Industry, published a paper entitled “The Smoking Controversy: A Perspective”. This paper attempted to tell the “other side” of the story, namely that the smoking controversy is just that, a controversy, and that it must be resolved by more scientific research: “years of scientific research have failed to provide conclusive evidence that smoking causes disease…”
In this short tract, a number of scenarios discredit the anti-tobacco movement including a political maneuver to seize or maintain power through the denial of pleasure, citing “this was true of ancient dietary laws, sexual taboos, restrictions on the theater and Prohibition. Others would say it is true today of anti-tobacco programs”. A section called “The making of hypochondriacs” notes, “I wonder how many people who just could not give up smoking might have continued to lead a perfectly normal life had they not been plagued by fears of being not only in great peril, but actually sinful.” And finally, the industry concludes that smoking is pleasurable and therefore a personal right - a fading freedom that should not be infringed upon.
Read the entire paper:
Tobacco Institute (1978) The Smoking Controversy: A Perspective.
This is a guest post by Kristin Daniel, UCSF Archives and Special Collections Intern.
Dear Reader, you may not be aware of the fact that most—if not all—archives must deal with the looming specter of unprocessed legacy collections haunting their vaults. Hark, what’s that I hear? The sound of researchers gnashing their teeth at the thought of virgin cartons, brimming with knowledge, just beyond their reach? In the name of Science and History, what can be done?
I’ll tell you good Reader! An expedition is being undertaken at this very moment to survey those hidden but not forgotten boxes of lore that reside in the vault of the UCSF Archives. Possessing the requisite skills and patience, archivist David Uhlich and myself (your plucky and adroit, intern) are making our way through shelf after shelf of material – opening boxes, checking contents, and conferring with the notes of archivists gone by.
Sometimes we find what’s on the shelf matches what information we have, but sometimes we come across half-created records or material lacking adequate description. Despite these setbacks, we roll up our sleeves and soldier on, updating existing records with new information about content and location, or creating shiny new records of our own.
It’s a long process, but it is important work. Fear not, gentle Reader, for although the task seems Sisyphean in magnitude, the brave souls of the Archives and Special Collections are determined to succeed!
We’ve become somewhat accustomed to seeing “smoking doctor” pictures, typically the product of tobacco advertising cynically appealing to authority. The above image comes from a naturalistic setting however, depicting pathologist Dr. Harrison Martland (see table of contents below) at work.
Dr. Martland is featured on the cover of the January 1984 edition of the Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey (Vol. 81 no. 1), digitized by the Internet Archive as part of the NEH grant-funded project to digitize many of our state medical society journals.
The journal lacks any commentary on the smoking but does lead us to an article on the analysis of Dr. Martland’s historical autopsy records performed at Newark City Hospital from 1908 to 1911.
The author draws some interesting conclusions about the safety and violence of Newark from Dr. Martland’s records, but perhaps one of the most interesting details is his attempt to record all his findings in Latin! He gave up eventually, doubtless making the author’s analysis that little bit easier.
Check out this and many other journals from our collection and four other libraries at the Internet Archive’s State Medical Society Journals project page. Expect continued updates to the collection throughout the year.
“Racism Still Exists”: A Public Health Intervention Using Racism ‘Countermarketing’ Outdoor Advertising in a Black Neighborhood – a project and paper by Naa Oyo A. Kwate at Rutgers University.
This study and supporting tumblr blog reports on RISE (Racism Still Exists), a high-risk, high-reward public health intervention that used outdoor advertising to disseminate a “counter-marketing” campaign in New York City (NYC).
One component of the campaign was to use internal tobacco industry documents to demonstrate ways the industry marketed cigarettes, targeted specific populations, and sought to deny the dangers of smoking. Big Tobacco’s targeting of Black populations reveals much about how these companies perceived African Americans and the strategies they used to create and maintain Black smokers.
The RISE campaign generated significant public discourse, particularly in social media and the study results suggest that racism counter-marketing campaigns may have promise as a community-based intervention to address health inequalities.
Tobacco Documents used in a 2014 Countermarketing Study in NYC:
“Racism Still Exists”: A Public Health Intervention Using Racism ‘Countermarketing’ Outdoor Advertising in a Black Neighborhood - a project and paper by Naa Oyo A. Kwate at Rutgers. Reported in the Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine.
http://racismstillexists.tumblr.com/tagged/smoke/ - This amazing study and supporting tumblr blog reports on RISE (Racism Still Exists), a high-risk, high-reward public health intervention that used outdoor advertising to disseminate a “countermarketing” campaign in New York City (NYC). The campaign generated significant public discourse, particularly in social media and the results suggest that racism countermarketing campaigns may have promise as a community-based intervention to address health inequalities.
One component of the campaign was to show, through the internal tobacco industry documents, the ways the industry marketed cigarettes, targeted specific populations, and sought to deny the dangers of smoking. Big Tobacco’s targeting of Black populations reveals much about how these companies perceived African Americans and the strategies they used to create and maintain Black smokers.
52 new documents have been added to the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents today.
You may also notice some changes to the Industry Documents Library and Truth Tobacco Industry Documents homepages. Each homepage now contains four big-button links to highlighted materials, such as Industry Videos, Industry Web Archives, and Popular Tobacco Documents. The TTID homepage includes a link to the UCSF Library’s Tobacco Control Archives, located in Archives and Special Collections on the Library’s 5th floor.
We’ve also added a “Featured” section in the bottom right-hand corner, which displays links to random documents in the database; choices change each time you re-visit the page. Try it out for a quick browsing break!
Another installment in our blog series that explores artifacts related to health practices now considered inaccurate or fraudulent. Check out Carl Baunscheidt’s Lebenswecker.
The Lebenswecker, translated as the “Life-Awakener” or the “Resuscitator,” was developed by German inventor Carl Baunscheidt in the mid-19th century. The small instrument included over 30 thin, spring-loaded needles concentrated at the end of an ebony staff.
According to Baunscheidt, the Lebenswecker was designed to quickly puncture the skin, creating “artificial pores.” The “pores,” i.e. puncture wounds, were then covered with a proprietary irritating oil called “Oleum Baunscheidtii” that produced blisters. As another option, the practitioner could dip the needles in the oil before application, thus creating a more concentrated injection. As the blisters formed and drained, Baunscheidt claimed, the “health-destroying morbid matter” in the body naturally escaped.
Baunscheidt developed a health philosophy around the Lebenswecker known as Baunscheidtism. His inspiration, as detailed in his book Baunscheidtism, or a New Method of Cure, came from his experience watching mosquitoes bite his rheumatic hand. As he writes, “it seemed as if the pains he had suffered, had fled with the flies…the inflicted sting caused an opening in the epidermis just large enough for the fine, volatile, but pathogenic substances lodged in the skin to exude.”
Baunscheidt claimed that the Lebenswecker could cure everything from sleeplessness to measles to epilepsy. Baunscheidtism practitioners, like John Linden, made similarly broad claims. As Linden noted in his work, Manual of the Exanthematic Method of Cure, the Lebenswecker could eliminate a tapeworm because, after repeated applications, “the unwelcome guest will soon become disgusted with his quarters, and be compelled to vacate.”
Baunscheidt’s philosophy, backed by personal testimonies included in his publications, achieved a measure of popularity in the 19th and early 20th century, especially in Germany and the United States. Today, his treatment is widely discredited.
We house two different “Life-Awakeners” in the UCSF Archives and Special Collections and a similar instrument developed by Baunscheidt called an artificial leech. Please contact us if you would like to come in and see the artifacts! We also have editions of John Linden and Carl Baunscheidt’s writings or you can read Baunscheidtism, or a New Method of Cure online in our digital collection.
The Library Tech Commons Team is very proud to offer a comprehensive collection of video and audio equipment for loan, free of charge, to UCSF students, staff and faculty. Our equipment is used ever day for a variety of projects, including interviews, medical demonstrations, and even student skits. We listened to your feedback, and have added new items to the collection!
Among the new additions are a state-of-the-art LED light kit, two new digital audio recorders, a dual wireless mic kit (yes, mic-up two subjects at the same time!), and high-quality handheld mics and a shotgun mic for advanced users. For each new item, there is also an accompanying online help document to get you up-and-running quickly:
- Westcott LED Lights
- Zoom H2n
- Zoom H5
- Azden Wireless Mics
- Sure Handheld Mics
- Azden Shotgun Mic
- Gitzo Boom Pole
The full list is available on our Support Center website, and includes video cameras, external hard drives for video projects, tripods and more.
Please help us maintain this service (which, at many other institutions, isn’t free), by reviewing the help documentation before you arrive to pick up the equipment, and by treating our equipment with care.
If you have any questions, or suggestions for us to improve this service, please do not hesitate to contact us. We welcome your feedback!
PS: Also coming soon… a new reservation system that will allow you to view an availability calendar and make your own reservations. Stay tuned for another announcement this Fall!
Every month, we highlight a newly published article along with a few key industry documents used by the author(s):
LeGresley E, Lee K. Analysis of British American Tobacco’s questionable use of privilege and protected document claims at the Guildford Depository. Tobacco Control 2016 Jun 27.
Tobacco companies have a documented history of attempting to hide information from public scrutiny, including inappropriate privilege claims. The authors conducted a search of the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library which identified inconsistent privilege claims, and duplicates of documents withheld by BAT from public visitors. “A review of the validity of these claims was conducted against recognized legal definitions of privilege. The authors found that BAT has asserted inappropriate privilege claims over 49% of the documents reviewed (n=63). The quantity of such claims and consistency of the stated rationale for the privilege claims suggest a concerted effort rather than human error.”
Key Documents from the UCSF Truth Tobacco Industry Documents:
- Supplemental Table – containing documents reviewed for appropriateness of privilege claims.
Marking some documents as confidential, secret or privileged was intended to protect company interests. The authors retrieved the following documents describing what BAT staff should deem as sensitive information and how privilege should be claimed to protect it:
The authors note the blanket protection afforded some personal documents also creates an opportunity to hide sensitive material simply by placing correspondence on home letterhead. This practice is referenced in the following document by Phillip Morris executive Thomas Osdene in a handwritten note regarding the destruction of potentially sensitive documents relating to the industry-funded Institute for Biological Research (INBIFO): “If important letters or documents have to be sent, please send to home—I will act on them and destroy”
Celebs, a future President and even Atticus Finch rep Chesterfield back in the day…
Actors and entertainers such as Ronald Reagan, Tyrone Power, Charles Coburn, Ann Todd, Ethel Barrymore, Louis Jourdan, and Gregory Peck routinely endorsed cigarettes in ads such as these from the “Always Buy Chesterfield” campaign of 1948. These particular marketing images came from Life Magazine and the Saturday Evening Post, two mainstream media outlets.
This summer the UCSF Archives & Special Collections is hosting two interns who are working on diverse projects.
Sophia Lahey is helping with the manuscript collections survey project, updating the metadata for historic photographs and documents that are posted on Calisphere, and assisting with quality control of volumes digitized for the State Medical Society Journals project.
Sophia is currently a student at Sonoma State University majoring in history and liberal arts. She lives with her parents in Marin county. In the fall she will be moving to Japan to study Japanese language and work towards a history major with concentration in Asian studies.
In her free time she pursues photography and spends time with her friends. She also enjoys video games as a hobby. She is excited to get experience working with historical documents and archives management systems to help her in the future with her history major.
For the first time we are working with the Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) Summer Research Program. “This program is designed to provide an opportunity for High School and Undergraduate students to immerse themselves in the world of basic and/or clinical research for three months during the summer. The program pairs students with one or two CHORI principal investigators who serve as mentors, guiding the students through the design and testing of their own hypotheses and methodology development. At the end of the summer, students present their research to their peers just as any professional researcher would do.” Our CHORI intern, Laura Schafer is co-mentored by Drs. Aimee Medeiros and Brian Dolan from the UCSF Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine and Polina Ilieva, Head of Archives & Special Collections.
As an undergrad senior student of Psychology and more recently also Pedagogy at UC Berkeley, Laura Schafer is deeply interested in research fields related to pediatrics and healthcare associated to socioeconomic status (SES) factors. She believes that having grown up experiencing the consequences of Brazil’s developing societal reality while having juvenile diabetes plays a significant influence on what has developed into the focus of her academic career by far. She is mostly concerned with the consequences of low socioeconomic status (SES) factors potentially interfering with treatment affordability and proper healthcare practices for chronically ill children’s mental, emotional. and physical health.
Although Laura has had the chance to acquire some fundamental research-enabling skills through involvement as an RA at the UC Berkeley Emotion and Social Interaction Laboratory and also from participating in an honors’ thesis developing program through her University’s department of pedagogy, Laura seeks further training and mentoring in the principles underlying conducts of research through her internship at UCSF. She is very enthusiastic about the opportunity to work with the UCSF mentors. The project Laura is involved with during her internship this summer aims to assist with the digitization and creation of metadata for the historical patient data from the 1920’s to 1960’s which includes pediatric records.
The CLE is used across UCSF for Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing, and Pharmacy education and much more. Each school and department has their own unique needs, and faculty can choose from a number of course formats to customize the layout of their CLE course to best meet these needs.
If you have used the CLE, you are likely familiar with the Topics course format, the default in CLE courses. While the Topics format and the other five course formats are awesome, we want to take this opportunity to highlight one of our favorites – the Collapsed Topics course format.
You may have read about the Collapsed Topics course format in the CLE Improvements for Fall 2015 blog post. We have been busy getting to know the new course formats and documenting use cases, best practices, and instructions for using each.
Let’s take a closer look at the Collapsed Topics course format:Description
Streamline the look of your course! The Collapsed Topics course format helps organize your CLE course and eliminate the “scroll of death.” With this course format, course content is tucked away within individual topics. Topics can be expanded and collapsed with a single click. Topics will remain expanded or collapsed on a per course, per student basis.
The Collapsed Topics course format is great for any academic or collaboration CLE course with a large number of resources and activities.Instructions
To apply the Collapsed Topics course format to your CLE course:
- Navigate to the CLE course (you will need to have an editing role in the course to change course formats)
- From the Administration block, click Edit Settings
- Scroll down and expand the Course Format section
- From the Format drop-down menu, select Collapsed Topics
- Scroll to the bottom of the page and click the Save Changes button
The Collapsed Topics course format will now be used in your course. You can always change the course format by returning to the Edit Settings page in the course and selecting another format.Get Help
Take time to review your course and the newly applied course format. Return to the Edit Settings page to continue to customize course format settings to better meet your needs.
For detailed instructions on customizing the format, click the Collapsed Topics tab in the Course Formats document located in the Learning Tech Support Center.
Have questions about using the Collapsed Topics or any of the five other course formats in your CLE course? Attend a Tech Clinic at the UCSF Library, contact a Learning Tech Specialist, or leave a comment below!
43 Million off-label prescriptions of Neurontin due to Parke-Davis’ promotional activities
Ever wonder if physicians’ prescribing practices are swayed by pharmaceutical companies and their promotions? Read the 2008 ‘Declaration of Meredith Rosenthal’, Associate Professor of Health Economics and Policy at Harvard School of Public Health, found in our UCSF Drug Industry Documents archive collection: Neurontin Marketing and Sales Practices Litigation
Rosenthal: “Using standard econometric methods, I establish that Parke-Davis’ challenged promotional efforts had a significant impact on the prescribing of Neurontin for off-label uses and at dosages higher than those recommended in the FDA-approved label…In total, I find that there were 43 million off-label prescriptions…of Neurontin as a result of the…promotional activities related to the off-label uses at issue in this case that would not have occurred absent the challenged conduct.
URL : https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/drug/docs/mpgw0217
Author : Rosenthal, Meredith
Document Date : 2008 August 11
This is a guest post by Jessica Jones, former UCSF Archives & Special Collections Intern.
As an intern for the UCSF Library, Archives and Special Collections, I have worked on many different projects that utilize my skills as a professional administrative assistant, including the State Medical Journals Digitization Project, a collection survey, rehousing and inventorying the portrait photograph collection, and more. I also attended Library Updates meetings and listened to presentations about changes within libraries. Although this was a very new experience to me I adapted very quickly and I am proud to say I have learned so much and have enjoyed my time here with UCSF.
I would like to share a bit more about my most recent project working with the Black Caucus records. I really found this project to be interesting; I researched, digitized, and uploaded material from the collection to the digital asset management system and assisted in creating original metadata to facilitate discovery of these items. You can now access the UCSF Black Caucus Records digital collection on Calisphere.
The Black Caucus was first established on the UCSF campus in May 1968 in the wake of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. This organization worked to provide more job opportunities for qualified minority applicants and lobbied for more minority students in all four professional schools. The organization engaged in many civil rights initiatives and social justice projects, like supporting custodial and technical staff in labor disputes and campaigning for more diverse hiring at all levels of the university. Beginning in the 1970s, the group shared personal stories, event updates, and project achievements in a newsletter named the Black Bulletin. There were many notable UCSF figures that helped found and lead the Black Caucus. For instance, UCSF Medal winner Joanne Lewis served as one of the organization’s first chairpersons and organized the publication of the Black Bulletin.
The Black Caucus records help to demonstrate that African Americans have contributed remarkable achievements in the fields of science and medicine during the 20th century. To encourage future researchers and clinicians of color I think that it is essential for boys and girls to be given the academic tools to succeed in science and medicine, preferably long before college. There are several programs that help facilitate this, such as the White House initiative “My Brother’s Keeper” that helps young people reach their full potential. Medical schools should also continue to sponsor pipeline programs to encourage minority students to consider careers in medicine.
I am very proud and excited to be a part of this amazing project. The Black Caucus has helped support and encourage people of color at UCSF through advocacy and community. The organization’s message of equality shows how important it is to have a diverse population of practitioners to address healthcare needs and to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare.
We have added 604 new documents to the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents today.
This brings our total document holdings to 88,281,975 pages in 14,618,860 documents!
Article Spotlight: Implications of Tobacco Industry Research on Packaging Colors for Designing Health Warning Labels
Every month, we highlight a newly published article along with a few key industry documents used by the author(s):
Lempert LK, Glantz SA. Implications of Tobacco Industry Research on Packaging Colors for Designing Health Warning Labels. Nicotine Tobacco Research. 2016 May 4.
Tobacco companies conducted research to understand how pack colors affect consumers’ perceptions of the products and make packages and their labeling more visually prominent. The companies found that black is visually prominent and black text on a white background is more prominent than white text on a black background. Yellow most quickly and effectively seizes and holds consumers’ attention and signals warning or danger, while white connotes health and safety. In essence, using black text on a bright contrasting background color, particularly yellow, attracts consumers’ attention to the message.
Using the tobacco companies’ own internal research on improving the prominence of pack elements, advocates designing HWLs could consider using black lettering on a contrasting yellow background as this would most effectively seize and hold consumers’ attention and signal the danger of cigarettes and other tobacco products.
Key Documents from the UCSF Truth Tobacco Industry Documents:
A Description of a Computer Aided Graphics System for Pack Design (1985)
The cigarette pack itself becomes more important due to advertising restrictions – the pack is often “the only means of communicating with the consumer”
- Color Documentation for Doral Packaging Colors (2001)
Companies’ research showed that some colors (red and black) are more visible and prominent than others (gray), make information more memorable, and appear to advance and make one pack look larger and more visible than neighboring packs. “Yellow is the fastest color your eye sees…and is the best color to use to draw attention”
- Principles of Measurement of Visual Standout in Pack Design: Report No RD 2039 (1986)
A 1986 BAT research and development report on pack design found that “white is generally held to convey a clean, healthy association”
RJ Reynolds document notes color and other visual cues are selected for communication of consumer expections: i.e. Reds = Flavor/strength and “White communicates Lightness…”
Friday the 13th of May was the auspicious date of our visit to one of our partner organizations, the Internet Archive, just across Golden Gate Park in the Richmond District. The Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library of millions of freely accessible books, movies, software, music, websites and more. Internet Archive graciously hosts a bi-weekly Partners Lunch, inviting anyone working in partnership with IA to tour the facility (a gorgeous re-purposed Christian Science church), meet staff in person, and participate in a lunchtime roundtable where IA folks and visitors share their projects’ progress, successes and failures. The whole UCSF Archives team, plus UCSF collections staff members Beatrice Mallek and David MacFarland, were in attendance.
We met with our IA liason Jesse Bell, who gave us a look into the progress of some of our projects ongoing at Internet Archive. Here Eliza Zhuang is using a specially designed scanning booth to digitize volumes of bound medical journals for the State Medical Journal project. The “scanner” actually uses two conventional DSLR cameras to simultaneously photograph the pages of the book, optimally positioned by the pedal-operated V-shaped glass plate shown here.
After photography, the images undergo QA and metadata association before being uploaded to the Internet Archive, where they look like this.
IA’s lobby provides plenty of excitement. A prominently displayed monitor shows the digitization currently underway on a number of different systems. Below, David Uhlich watches as pages from the book scanner are photographed. Immediately behind the monitor is a film scanner that similarly feeds the live-view monitor. The lobby also houses a beautiful antique gramophone near a small listening station that includes an iPad loaded with digitized music and other recorded sound.
After lunch, we took a more in depth tour of IA’s facility. We saw an example of IA’s specially designed “portable” book scanner, which is basically a scaled-down version of the one used by IA staff. Approximately $10,000 will get you your own book scanning station, software, and support from IA for your own scanning projects. We also looked inside the refurbished church that, in addition to the pews, now houses some of IA’s servers and digitization equipment.
Sculptures of miniature people inhabit the aisles. Long-term IA staff are thanked for their service with a sculpture of their likeness; many depicted holding an item that reflects their interests or passions.
It was great to meet the IA team in person. Our partnership with IA continues to provide new opportunities to preserve and make accessible our material. We look forward to exciting projects in the future!
The CLE makes it possible for you to develop online group work in your courses with Groups and Groupings features. Although they sound very similar, they have different functions. It can be a little confusing until you understand how they both work.
A Group is a collection of one or more individual users. Groups enable instructors to split the students into sub-sets to view resources or work on an activity together.
A Grouping is a collection of groups that can be used to break up the class in to different sets of groups of students. Groupings can be applied to restrict access to an activity, resource, or topic.
Are you interested in developing a collaborative student assignment? Would you like to make resources in your course visible to one group and hide them from another? Take a look at the videos below to learn about using and applying Groups and Groupings to your course.