The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibited candy, fruit, alcohol and spice flavors in cigarettes, as flavors make cigarettes easier to smoke and increase youth appeal…but smokeless tobacco was not included in this regulation. The authors analyzed tobacco industry documents related to the development and marketing of flavored smokeless products (including moist snuff, snus, loose leaf and chewing tobacco) in the USA to investigate the use of additives in smokeless tobacco and who the target audiences were for these flavored products.
Kostygina G, Ling PM. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products. Tobacco Control 2016 Nov;25 (Suppl 2):ii40-ii49.
Key Documents from the UCSF Truth Tobacco Industry Documents:
Smokeless products with flavours such as peach, apple, honeydew, strawberry, pineapple, honeysuckle, champagne and prune date back to the 1870s
- Louis F Bantle, then vice president for marketing at US Smokeless Tobacco Co, said in a 1968 marketing meeting: “We must sell the use of tobacco in the mouth and appeal to young people…we hope to start a fad”.
- In 1966, FJ Triest, President of the Fries & Brother Flavour Specialists Company also recognized that sugar additives and flavorings could increase palatability to novices, and stated in tobacco trade press that flavorings such as vanilla, peach, apricot, licorice and cocoa, could act as blinding agents against ‘objectionable off-flavours’
- A B&W focus group study demonstrated a linkage between flavors and initiation noting use of flavored brands or ‘candy dips’ was likened to sucking on a candy or a Lifesaver by experienced users; and was considered to be characteristic of beginners; such ‘candy’ flavors were ‘okay for little kids’ but inappropriate for those who wanted a ‘full, strong taste’ of tobacco
- USST subsequently collaborated with Swedish Tobacco Company in the early 1970s to develop a new mildly flavored product for ‘new users, mainly cigarette smokers, age group 15–35’
- In addition to controlling nicotine levels, USST used flavors in the graduation strategy, describing two parallel tracks: one using mint-flavored and wintergreen-flavored brands, and one with sweeter, ‘fruity’ and milder ‘natural’ brands. USST’s starter products generally fit in one of the two flavor categories: mint/wintergreen and natural/sweet flavor (eg, Skoal Bandits Mint and Skoal Bandits Natural)
- RJR marketing research suggested that ‘candy’ brands were more highly flavored and milder than Skoal, and were ‘generally designed for the new/novice category user’
The UCSF Archives & Special Collections started building the AIDS History collection almost 30 years ago, in 1987. Early on, the archivists decided to create a collection development policy that would allow researchers to examine diverse aspects of the AIDS epidemic, including political, social, economic, cultural, and biomedical aspects.
The AIDS History Project holdings at UCSF currently include 39 collections; all of them are cataloged and 32 are processed and have detailed inventories. The recently-acquired seven new collections, comprising a total of 373 linear feet, are not yet processed, and the archives are working to secure funding to arrange and describe them. In the past year we added the following collections to our holdings:
John S. Greenspan papers
A faculty member at UCSF since 1976, John S. Greenspan is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Oral Pathology in the Department of Orofacial Sciences. He is a Director-Emeritus of the AIDS Research Institute, which he led from 2003 to 2012, and is the founding Director of the UCSF Oral AIDS Center, as well as UCSF AIDS Specimen Bank. He was the Director of the UCSF AIDS Clinical Research Center/California AIDS Research Center from 1992 to 2005.
His research interests include the global health aspects of AIDS. His own work is rooted in studies of oral aspects of AIDS and the role of viruses in oral epithelial and salivary gland lesions. He and his colleagues have made major contributions to HIV research and care, notably the discovery of the lesion hairy leukoplakia, its association with EBV, and the significance of this and other oral lesions in the natural history of HIV diseases. His papers include correspondence, presentations, lectures, research data and notes, teaching materials, records related to administration of the AIDS Research Institute and AIDS Specimen Bank.
As an infectious disease trained pediatrician and epidemiologist, Dr. Francis has over 30 years of experience in epidemic control and vaccines. He spent 21 years working for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) focusing on vaccine-preventable diseases. Dr. Francis has worked on HIV/AIDS since its emergence in 1981. He initially directed the AIDS laboratory at the CDC and worked closely with the Institut Pasteur to identify the causative virus. His early efforts to call attention to the threat of AIDS and warn of the inadequacy of the public health response were chronicled in the book by Randy Shilts And the Band Played On. In 1992, he joined Genentech to spend full time developing vaccines, while he also helped found what became the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI). Dr. Francis co-founded VaxGen, which completed the world’s first Phase III trials of two candidate HIV vaccines in 2003. His papers include correspondence, news-clippings, research data and notes, conference and presentation materials, and ephemera.
AIDS Treatment News, MSS 94–28 – 2015 addition
This recent donation of more than 68 linear feet complements the ATN records that were transferred to the archives in 1994.
AIDS Treatment News (ATN) was a biweekly newsletter that reported on both orthodox and experimental treatments of AIDS-related conditions. AIDS Treatment News was frequently the first publication to investigate and write about potential new treatments, clinical trials, and the politics involved in government sanctioned and alternative therapeutics. It was a primary resource for community-based organizations and government agencies, and was also read by many physicians and scientists involved in AIDS research and care. These records include correspondence, telephone logs, presentations, minutes of meetings, photographs, and news clippings.
The mission of the UCSF AHP has broadened from the initial goal of identifying, surveying and describing at-risk records of educational and professional institutions, non-profit service organizations and ad hoc community-based organizations that emerged in San Francisco in the early years of AIDS epidemic.
The multifaceted and multidisciplinary approach to collection development has led UCSF Archives & Special Collections to create a complex and comprehensive AIDS history research collection that documents not only medical aspects of the epidemic, but also changes in cultural values and shifts in policy and social response. UCSF Archives is continuing to build an inclusive AIDS history research collection where patients, activists, researchers, clinicians, journalists, and community based organizations’ perspectives will be preserved and will allow current and future generations of researchers to examine and learn from these materials.
The need to preserve and provide access to these materials was reinforced by two recent initiatives:
Dan Royles posted a call to action in the October issue of the AHA’s Perspectives on History to teach AIDS history to undergraduates: https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/october-2016/silence-death-its-time-to-teach-aids-history
The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory organized a meeting, “HIV/AIDS Research: Its History & Future” that brought together more than 125 pioneering scientists and clinicians who discussed the key scientific, epidemiological, and clinical discoveries that created this field and stressed the importance of preserving the past to find ways to address and control epidemics in the future: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/10/gathering-hivaids-pioneers-raw-memories-mix-current-conflicts
The archivists are collaborating with the UCSF AIDS Research Institute on collection development and public outreach efforts and today, to commemorate the World AIDS Day, we will be presenting two posters at the amfAR HIV Cure Summit at Mission Bay campus.
The UCSF Archives is open to anyone regardless of institutional affiliation, to make an appointment to see these materials, please use this contact form.
Article Spotlight: Soda and Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Campaigns: How Do They Compare?
In light of the soda tax propositions that were on the ballot in California and elsewhere, we are revisiting an important and relevant paper from 2012 for our Article Spotlight:
Dorfman L, Cheyne A, Friedman L, Wadud A, Gottlieb M. Soda and Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Campaigns: How Do They Compare? 2012 June. PLoS Med 9(6).
This 2012 paper, published in PLOS Med, compared the tobacco and beverage industries’ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) tactics, and found striking similarities. The authors found that “soda CSR campaigns echo tobacco CSR in their focus on the consumer and in their likely intent to thwart regulation.” Because sugary beverages are implicated in the global obesity crisis, major soda manufacturers have recently employed elaborate, expensive, multinational corporate social responsibility (CSR) campaigns. These campaigns are very similar to the tobacco industry’s use of CSR as a means to focus responsibility on consumers rather than on the corporation, bolster the companies’ and their products’ popularity, and to prevent regulation.
Key Documents from the UCSF Truth Tobacco Industry Documents:
- In 1999, Philip Morris described one CSR program [known as PM21] as “a multi-faceted, cross functional effort to change the public’s perception of Philip Morris and to improve the public’s attitudes toward the company and the people who work for it.”
- Through focus groups, PM found that company credibility and perceptions of PM were low: “PM is still seen as a tobacco company…participants do not perceive PM as responsible.” But, “credibility increased after participants learned of PM’s community contributions.”
- In response to the prevalence of underage smoking, all of the major tobacco companies instituted ‘youth smoking prevention’ programs to avert increased regulation.
- “CSR campaigns can improve a firm’s standing with the public and policymakers and they are potentially a powerful mechanism to forestall regulation.” Philip Morris’ Third Party Constituents database is an example of maintaining lists of “friends” and constituents that could be mobilized quickly to help combat a specific region’s impending regulations.
- “The overall goal for the tobacco industry’s CSR strategy has been to normalize its products and its corporate image”
To sum up, we are of the opinion that Auerbach’s work proves beyond all reasonable doubt the causation of lung cancer by smoke…
The above document, taken from our Tobacco Products Liability Project collection, is a 1970 previously privileged memorandum giving opinions on two specific inhalation studies using dogs. The author notes possible shortcomings of the studies and also how they may relate to human smoking activity. The memo concludes with the opinion that “under suitable conditions fresh whole smoke inhalation in animals will produce pre-cancerous changes and, in certain instances, true cancers which are similar to those found in human smokers.”
Source: Auerbach/Hammond Beagle Experiment [Confidential memo from W.D. Tughan of Gallaher Limited]
See the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library for more internal tobacco industry documents
Date: Friday, December 2nd, 2016
Time: 12 pm – 1:15 pm
Lecturer: Paul Blanc, MD, MSPH (UCSF)
Location: Lange Room, 5th Floor, UCSF Library – Parnassus
530 Parnassus Ave, SF, CA 94143
This event is free and open to the public. Light refreshments will be provided.
REGISTRATION REQUIRED: http://calendars.library.ucsf.edu/event/2941746
Join UCSF Archives & Special Collections for an afternoon talk with medical historian and author Paul Blanc MD, MSPH, as he discusses the toxic legacy of viscose rayon portrayed in his new book, Fake Silk. Dr. Blanc poses a basic question: When a new technology makes people ill, how high does the body count have to be before protective steps are taken? His work tells a dark story of hazardous manufacturing, poisonous materials, environmental abuses, political machinations, and economics trumping safety concerns. It explores the century-long history of “fake silk,” or cellulose viscose, used to produce such products as rayon textiles and tires, cellophane, and everyday kitchen sponges. His research uncovers the grim history of a product that crippled and even served a death sentence to many industry workers while also releasing toxic carbon disulfide into the environment.
Viscose, an innovative and lucrative product first introduced in the early twentieth century, quickly became a multinational corporate enterprise. Blanc investigates industry practices from the beginning through two highly profitable world wars, the mid-century export of hazardous manufacturing to developing countries, and the current “green-washing” of viscose as an eco-friendly product. This work brings to light an industrial hazard whose egregious history ranks with those of asbestos, lead, and mercury.
Dr. Blanc holds the Endowed Chair in Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the UCSF, where he has been a faculty member since 1988. Blanc received his BA from Goddard College (Plainfield, Vermont), where he first became interested in health and the environment, later training at the Harvard School of Public Health (in industrial hygiene), the Albert Einstein School of Medicine, and Cook County Hospital (in a joint Occupational Medicine and Internal Medicine Residency). He was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at UCSF and later a Fulbright Senior Research Scholar at the Ben Gurion University of the Negev. He also has been a resident scholar at the Rockefeller Bellagio Center (Bellagio, Italy) and the American Academy in Rome. In 2013-4, he was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. Blanc is the author of How Everyday Products Make People Sick (University of California Press, 2009) also writes a blog, “Household Hazards,” that is hosted by the magazine Psychology Today. Fake Silk: The Lethal History of Viscose Rayon is published by Yale University Press.
UCSF Archives & Special Collections launched this lecture series to introduce a wider community to treasures and collections from its holdings, to provide an opportunity for researchers to discuss how they use this material, and to celebrate clinicians, scientists, and health care professionals who donated their papers to the archives.
This month, IDL staff added a large set of new, previously confidential documents and rolled out our new Data Set; the entire database of IDL metadata and OCR text in downloadable files (in case you needed some light reading of 14 million+ records over the holidays). Keep reading for details…
- 39,512 formerly confidential RJ Reynolds documents
125 Depositions and Trial Transcripts from Engle Progeny cases, some as recent as October 2016
API and Data Sets – Wondering how to download large batches of IDL records at once? How about the entire corpus of documents in IDL for use in data analysis or digital humanities projects? For researchers who would prefer to work with Industry Documents Library (IDL) metadata and OCR text from within their own database systems, these files are now available for download. Please consult our API and Data Set page for more information.
Recently, we’ve been adding material to our digital collections on Calisphere.org. One highlight is the St. Joseph College of Nursing Collection.
The digital collection includes selected images from the St. Joseph College of Nursing papers and Alumni Association records. St. Joseph College of Nursing was established in 1921 as an affiliate of St. Joseph’s Hospital. The hospital was founded in San Francisco in 1889 by five Catholic sisters of the Order of Franciscan Sisters of the Sacred Heart. Though the hospital and school closed in the late 1970s, the Alumni Association continued activity until 2015.
The collection documents the educational activities of the school as well as the patient care and research performed by the sisters and students. Visit the digital collection to view more images or make an appointment with us to view the material in person.
“R&D is no longer responsible for Seroquel research - it is now the responsibility of Sales and Marketing.”
This week’s document comes from the UCSF Drug Industry Documents archive. Above is an email string between Jeffrey Goldstein, Michael Czupryna (Global Team; development), and Andrew Goudie (UK researcher) regarding the funding for Seroquel/quetiapine research and how it has transitioned from the Research & Development department to Sales and Marketing. Jeff Goldstein makes it clear that clinical studies will be funded first as they “can directly impact sales”.
Read the entire document at:
Email string – Drug discrimination studies with Seroquel (11/17/1997)
Document Date : 1997 November 17
Over 300 more Seroquel documents at: https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/drug/collections/seroquel-litigation-documents/
This is a guest post by Cristina Nigro, UCSF History of Health Sciences graduate student.
In his Annual Report of the President of the University to the then-Governor of the State of California, UC President Benjamin Wheeler outlined the part of the university in the Great War:
On February 13, 1917, in view of the increasing probability of the United States entering the European War, the Board of Regents, at the instance of the President of the University, formally offered to the National Government the entire resources of the University for use in meeting whatever needs should arise in prosecuting the war.
The American Red Cross and the Department of Medicine at the University of California Medical School were quick to respond to President Wheeler’s February 1917 call to action. In March, they began organizing plans for Base Hospital #30. According to Wheeler:
The Medical School has furnished the equipment and many of the members of Hospital Unit 30, under Dr. Kilgore. Of the 25 physicians, 23 are from our Medical School, 13 of them graduates. There are also 10 enlisted men among our medical students. Eight of the 65 nurses are from the University Hospital.
In June, the Base Hospital #30 Unit marched up Market Street as part of the Liberty Loan Parade. But the orders for mobilization to Fort Mason did not come until late November, and the unit had to spend the next three months outfitting and equipping the hospital.
The nurses of Base Hospital #30 left Fort Mason on December 26, 1917, arriving in New York Harbor on January 1, 1918. On January 25 the nurses were split up and sent to various Atlantic Coast camps. Eager to be deployed, Acting Chief Nurse Arabella A. Lombard recalled:
The camps were all in sore need of nurses at that time, and after the first huge disappointment at not being able to go directly to France, each one felt glad to be able to do some work in her own country, and in many, if not all instances, much valuable experience was gained from the nursing on this side.
The men of Base Hospital #30 left aboard the S.S. North Pacific on March 3, 1918. After a brief sojourn in New York, the entire unit set sail for Brest, France aboard the USS Leviathan. Following a forty-six hour train ride from Brest, they arrived in Royat, France on May 10, 1918.
The first trainload of patients—half British and half American—arrived in Royat on June 12, 1918. Lieutenant-Colonel Eugene S. Kilgore, M.C. remembered feeling unprepared for that first trainload. Of the 369 patients, two thirds of them went to the surgical ward. The second train arrived on June 18, 1918. Kilgore recounted:
We were somewhat, though not much, better prepared for the second trainload of 461 cases from the Chateau Thierry fight. The train commander stated that this was the worst trainload he had ever seen. There were dozens of cases of terrible skin, lung and eye poisoning from mustard gas, and the staff worked night and day trying to keep up with the work of dressing the enormous burns.
Of the 461 new patients, 278 had to be carried in on stretchers.
Fifteen more trains would arrive at Royat by November 13, 1918, amounting to 4,827 casualties. In the five months between June and November 1918, Base Hospital #30 treated 7,562 patients and grappled with typhoid fever and “a very serious epidemic of respiratory disease.” A train arriving on September 22, 1918 brought 232 men suffering from acute respiratory infections to the base hospital. By the end of September, thirty to seventy influenza patients were admitted to the hospital daily.
On November 11, 1918 the Allies and Germany signed an armistice, ending the fighting on the Western Front. Beginning on December 6, patients were evacuated from the hospital in waves. Reminiscing about her time at Base Hospital #30, nurse Lombard reflected:
After the first train bearing wounded came in on June 12 until some time after the armistice was signed we were very busy most of the time, with only an occasional lull in the work. At times it seemed almost like a night and day proposition. The wounded and sick were wonderfully courageous and our only regret was that we were unable to do more for them. It was all very much worth while, however, when one met a stretcher coming to the ward and heard some splendid American lad, perhaps minus an arm or a leg, say “Gee, but it’s good to see an talk to an American girl.
The unit sailed from France on April 13, 1919, arriving back home in San Francisco on May 15, 1919. Although formally demobilized on May 26, Base Hospital #30 would revive two decades later, ready to serve the wounded soldiers of World War II.
To learn more about UCSF’s role in World War I, save the date for our upcoming exhibit on Base Hospital 30 and the Great War, opening April 2017 at the UCSF Library.
Archetype Project aims to get teens smoking.
A 1991 draft of Phillip Morris’ “Archetype Project” shows how the company covertly aimed to appeal to teenagers while outwardly appearing to discourage teenage smoking. The inter-office correspondence from Carolyn Levy rewords recommendations such as, “Stress that smoking is dangerous” into more positive recommendations such as, “Smoking is for people who like to take risks, who take life as an adventure to prove themselves.”
Read the entire document at the UCSF Industry Documents Library:
Find more than 5,225,000 documents in the Phillip Morris Collection.
The PDF viewer and annotator built into EndNote x7.7 (the latest version) does not work with MacOS 10.12 (Sierra). Hopefully this will be corrected soon. As EndNote is just about to come out with a major upgrade (EndNote X8) in November 2016 I suspect we will have to wait before the compatibility problem with Sierra is fixed. — Whit
We are continuing our collaboration with the University of San Francisco and in particular, Dr. Kathryn Nasstrom, chair of the History Department and her students. This fall semester we are hosting Joshua Dela Cruz and Allen Smoot who are enrolled in the History Internship Program. This program allows students to gain valuable real-world experience and course credit while helping archives staff to accomplish numerous projects that will benefit our patrons and general public.
Joshua Dela Cruz
Joshua is currently working on several projects including organizing and creating a metadata of a manuscript collection of AIDS periodicals and updating and digitizing a photograph collection of portraits. He has also assisted in smaller tasks such as taking inventory, organizing a digital list of metadata, and taking a survey of various other collections and items kept here in the archives.
Joshua is a 4th year undergraduate student from the University of San Francisco, who will be graduating in the upcoming Spring semester. His strong interest in old artifacts and ancient stories, but also in medicine and the natural sciences has lead him to pursuing a Bachelors of Arts degree in History along with a Natural Science Minor and a Chemistry Minor.
His hobbies are playing video games, watching anime, playing the piano, learning Japanese, and a little bit of creative writing. Although considering pursuing a career in medicine, Joshua plans to take a gap year. During that time, he intends to expand his experience in health care, to do research, to explore his other fields of interest, or possibly go to Japan.
Allen Smoot is a senior undergrad student at the University of San Francisco. He will be helping with collection processing, cataloging, and researching. Allen looks forward to working on arranging and processing smaller collections, such as Tobacco Control and photograph collections. Allen is also interested in learning the basics of archival theory and practice as well as digitalization and metadata creation. He will also be conducting quality control for digitized materials for the Medical Heritage Liberty state medical journals project.
Allen is a US history major while also playing baseball at the University of San Francisco. He was raised in Moraga, CA. Some of his hobbies include hanging out with friends, watching the San Francisco Giants, and Golden State Warriors. Allen is excited to begin working at the UCSF library and learning from the full time archivists.
That’s the greatest credibility, your potential enemy…find your natural enemies and if possible, the ways in which you can neutralize them. Firefighters…get such help from us…and then when we need them to stand up and say, not cigarettes that cause fire, in 99.9% of the cases we get their cooperation.
This week’s document comes from the
Philip Morris Records in the UCSF Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library. Above is a transcript from a 1984 Philip Morris Corporate Affairs conference workshop on how to influence issues and regulations related to smoking and tobacco by befriending third party constituents. Advice from the speaker includes befriending credible organizations, such as fire fighters, in order to gain their cooperation when legislation come up.
“Who would normally be involved in the self-extinguishing cigarette on the other side of the fence? Probably the fire-fighting community. As you know in the United States, we have put a huge amount of time into helping all the organized groups of professional and volunteer fire-fighters. They get such help from us that it is monumental. And then when we need them to stand up and say, not cigarettes that cause fire, in 99.9 percent of the cases, we get their cooperation.”
“But that’s because we have cultivated them, helped them achieve some of their goals and we have seen that they are a potential enemy that has real credibility. That’s the greatest credibility, your potential enemy. We had turned them around and made allies, third-party defenders for ourselves.
And all of this involves a process of logic. To find the common ground, to find your natural friends; to find your natural enemies and if possible, the ways in which you can neutralize them.”
Read the entire document at the UCSF Industry Documents Library:
Title : PHILIP MORRIS INCORPORATED 840000 CORPORATE AFFAIRS WORLD CONFERENCE WORKSHOP - DEALING WITH THE ISSUES INDIRECTLY: CONSTITUENCIES
Document Date : 1984 September 13
It is amazing to think that curare, a poison sometimes known as “The Flying Death” and used on the tips of darts and arrows by indigenous people of South America, could prove to be an important stepping stone in the path to modern anesthesia. But then again, curare is not a simple poison, but actually a powerful muscle relaxant; after injection, an animal that has been shot with a curare-tipped dart can actually be kept alive through artificial respiration. More importantly to the native tribes—as they would not have needed to resuscitate their dinners—curare brings about paralysis and asphyxiation when injected (either by dart, arrow, or needle), but is not poisonous if ingested.
Curare was first brought to the United States by Richard Gill, an American living in Ecuador, in 1938. Gill had become interested in the medicinal uses of curare after falling off his horse and developing neurological symptoms including spasticity. After being told about curare by his neurologist, Gill sought out and befriended a tribe who used the arrow poison. The indigenous people then showed him how to procure and use it, and Gill eventually returned to the US with approximately 25 pounds of curare paste.
Medical experiments with curare began as early as the 19th century, but its use in anesthesia didn’t start until the mid-20th century, after Gill had introduced it in the US. One of its first uses was to prevent bone fractures brought about by spasms during electro-convulsive therapy. Since it is such a powerful muscle relaxant, curare proved helpful for tracheal intubation, and in keeping the patients’ muscles relaxed during operative procedures. It also lessened the need for the use of deep general anesthesia during highly invasive operations, like abdominal or thoracic surgeries.
Despite its usefulness in relaxing patients, curare has no analgesic (painkilling) or anesthetic qualities. This was proven in the 1940s, after curare was given to some infants and children as the sole anesthetic agent during operative procedures. The patients who were old enough to communicate complained that they had felt everything during the surgery but were unable to move or cry out about the excruciating pain they were feeling. Upon hear this, anesthesiologist Dr. Scott Smith volunteered to take the drug in order to test whether curare did have any pain-relieving qualities. He became paralyzed but reported that the reduction of painful sensations was not impacted. Like the young patients before him, Smith had felt everything, but had not been able to move to stop it.
- 2511 RJ Reynolds documents – these were originally classified as confidential but have been de-classified and are now public
- 6384 newly acquired British American Tobacco documents – When BAT announced they were closing their document depository in Guildford, England, last year, the IDL team made an attempt to acquire any documents that were missing from our BAT holdings. We identified approx. 45,000 documents that had not been previously ordered/acquired. This is the first batch.
- 17 recently captured and preserved websites for our CA Tobacco Control web archives. These websites are related to the current California Proposition 56 tobacco tax ballot measure and include official “Yes on Prop 56” and “No on Prop 56” campaign websites and videos.
In addition, we have added 6 new papers and publications to the Tobacco Documents Bibliography.
Did you know that forums can be used for many different types of learning activities? Sure forums can be used to get students communicating and interacting via postings, but they can also start meaningful discussions to help students grasp new concepts and engage with their course work.
With a little bit of planning, you can stimulate student learning and add variety to your class with forums. In this post, we’ll share some tips to help you become a Forum activity master.
Selecting a Forum Type
Forums can be used to help students to develop a sense of community, demonstrate knowledge about key concepts, build a consensus, and reflect on materials that they have worked with outside of class. It’s important to choose the type of forum that makes sense for the activity you are asking students to complete. The CLE has five forum types, each with a slightly different layout and purpose:
- A Single Simple Discussion
Only one topic, started by the instructor, is allowed. This is best suited for short-term, focused conversations.
- Each Person Posts One Discussion
Each student may start one new topic. Students are not limited in the number of replies they can post within those topics.
- Q and A Forum
An instructor posts one topic, for example, posing a question to students. Students must post their response before they can view other students’ responses.
- Standard Forum Displayed in a Blog-like Format
Allow multiple topics listed with the most recent topic at the top of the page and replies behind a link. Students may start new topics in this format.
- Standard Forum for General Use
Allow multiple topics arranged in a threaded conversation. Students may start new topics in this format.
Controlling Email Notifications
Every time you add a new forum to your course, you can determine whether or not students will receive email notifications when someone posts or replies to that forum. This is done by setting the subscription mode for the forum.
There are 4 subscription modes that faculty can choose:
- Optional subscription
Participants can choose whether to be subscribed.
- Forced subscription
Everyone is subscribed and cannot unsubscribe.
- Auto subscription
Everyone is subscribed initially but can choose to unsubscribe at any time.
- Subscription disabled
Subscriptions are not allowed, This can be useful if the forum is set up for faculty only.
When viewing a forum, subscription mode settings appear in the Administration block. These settings will allow you to quickly change the Subscription mode options and view the current subscribers via the Show/edit current subscribers link.
Setting Up Forums
The CLE makes it easy for faculty and course staff to make edits to forums, but it’s important to follow some simple steps when setting them up initially to avoid any confusion: (1) select a forum type, (2) decide which subscription mode you will use, (3) set any permission overrides for instructor notifications, and (4) set up Groups if necessary.
- Changing the subscription mode from Yes, initially to No will not unsubscribe existing users; it will only affect those who enroll in the course in the future. Similarly changing Yes, initially will not subscribe existing course users but only those enrolling later.
- If a forum was initially set up as Forced and then is changed to Optional, the subscription mode will reset and students will need to subscribe to the forum to receive notifications.
- Forcing everyone to subscribe to forums is useful towards the beginning of the course when students may not be familiar with the settings.
- If students are unable to unsubscribe to a forum, but want to receive fewer forum notification emails from the CLE, they can update their profile to receive a digest of emails from the CLE, instead of receiving a separate email for every forum post.
Groups & Forums
Did you know that the Forum activity can be set up for Groups? When you apply Groups to forums, you have the option of sharing discussions with the entire class or restricting them to specific students or groups. You have a couple of options for setting up Groups in forums:
Separate Groups – Students can only see postings for their own group, others are invisible.
Visible Groups – Students work in their own group, but can also see other groups’ postings.
- Apply a Grouping to create a forum that is only visible to a particular group.
- Use separate Groups in the Forum activity to create a private journal activity, create groups of one and only the instructor and TAs will be able to read students’ posts.
- Apply separate Groups to a forum and add discussion topics for a selected group then only group members can reply to it.
- The Learning Tech Support Site has additional information about creating forums and posting to forums.
- Moodle Docs has all the details about forum settings.
As Halloween approaches, we thought it’d be a perfect time to highlight these 19th-century UC Medical Department surgery and anatomy lecture admission tickets, dated October 31, 1878!
The UC Medical Department tracked attendance and enrollment using lecture admission cards. Note that the lecture on clinical surgery was given by Hugh Toland. This is the same Hugh Toland who gifted his medical school to the University of California in 1873, thus creating what would eventually be the UCSF School of Medicine.
While these tickets were originally designed for academic use, they now look tailor-made for Halloween party invitations!
For more spooky fun in the archives, join us Monday, October 31, for a Halloween Open House in the Archives.
There are some films we have approached which we believe could be very beneficial to our “subliminal” product campaign.“
From the UCSF Industry Documents Library this week:
A 1981 letter from Rogers & Cowan, a public relations firm in Beverly Hills, CA, to an exec of William Esty, RJ Reynolds’s advertising agency since 1932. The letter recounts the promotional activities carried out by R&C and lists the 1980’s films in which the company has successfully placed RJ Reynolds products:
"We are making a concentrated effort to be very selective about the kinds of productions in which we place the products. Our goal is "pleasant situations” and we have evaluated many scripts which do not meet our criteria for products. There are some films we have approached which we believe could be very beneficial to our “subliminal” product campaign.“
R&C acknowledges placing products in television proves more difficult than movie placements but notes they have been successful in placing RJR products in a movie-of-the-week and a mini series and are currently approaching talk show guests regarding use of products while on TV. Other projects include product placement in Broadway productions; print media; and direct product mailing to celebrities in an effort to solicit possible endorsements. The end of the letter acknowledges there is a need for confidentiality around product placement and that they are acting "very quietly, on a one-on-one basis.”
Read more at:
Title : ACTIVITY REPORT.
URL : https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/qpfc0101
Author : COWAN W,ROGERS & COWAN
Document Date : 1981 August 26
RJ Reynolds Records
Just a quick note to those of you who use EndNote and those of you who want to.
After a 3.5 year hiatus, a new major upgrade to EndNote will be released in November. Usually EndNote updates about every 18 months but there has been disquiet in the EndNote world and EndNote and related businesses (Web of Science) has been spun off from Thomson-Reuters to form Clarivate Analytics. See http://ipscience.thomsonreuters.com/news/ip-and-science-launched-as-independent-company/?utm_source=false&utm_medium=false&utm_campaign=false .
Not many details yet about EndNote X8 so I believe we will need to wait to see how it functions and what new features it brings. See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AnXN41rLmZs for more about EndNote X8.
For those with UCSF email, you can buy EndNote X7 for $78 from OnTheHub UCSF. If you purchase now you will receive a free upgrade to X8. See the following link for more about UCSF OnTheHub and the academic discounts available to you (https://ucsf.onthehub.com/WebStore/Welcome.aspx).
Please let me know if you have questions.
We have talked about two of the essential elements of reference managers: adding information to RefWorks and organizing your RefWorks library. We will cover the third element in this post: adding in-text citations and a reference list to a document or to create a bibliography of articles.
In the set up section we covered downloading and installing a bit of software that works with Microsoft Word or GoogleDocs to add references to your writing from your RefWorks library.
Now open Word and be sure you see evidence of a RefWorks plugin.
If you have Word 2016 you will find RefWorks by clicking on the Insert tab, finding Add-ins, then finding MyAdd-Ins. There you should see RefWorks. Highlight RefWorks and click insert.
If you have Word for Mac 2011 you will see an inconspicuous toolbar in the far upper left (see image below). Each icon will identify itself if you hover over it, here you will want to login the first time you use it. It is best to sync after each session in which you add to your RefWorks library. Remember that RW is web-based so that it can take 2-5 minutes to update at times.
If you have Word for Windows 2013 you will see a RefWorks or ProQuest tab in Word. Log in and sync as mentioned above.Formatting a Word document
With the RefWorks Citation Manager selected (see image below), pick the article or articles you want to cite. If you will cite more than one article check the boxes and then Cite this (see image two below ).
You will also notice below the Word options on the tools page, there is a plug-in for GoogleDocs. You can have both Word and Google docs plug-ins. Click on the link to GoogleDocs and follow the instructions that follow.
Once again, this is enough to get you started. Please send me any questions you have.