Target Populations

Target Populations


Andersen B, Begay M, Lawson C. Breaking the alliance: Defeating the tobacco industry's allies and enacting youth access restrictions in Massachusetts. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93:1922-28.

Balbach E, Gasior R, Barbeau E. R. J. Reynolds' targeting of African Americans: 1988-2000. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93:822-27.

Braun S, Mejia R, Ling P, Perez-Stable E. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina. Tobacco Control. 2008 25 Feb;[Epub ahead of print].  doi:10.1136/tc.2006.018481

Brown-Johnson CG, England LJ, Glantz SA, Ling PM. Tobacco industry marketing to low socioeconomic status women in the USA. Tobacco Control 2014 January 21.

Carpenter C, Wayne G, Connolly G. Designing cigarettes for women: New findings from the tobacco industry documents. Addiction. 2005;100:837-851.

Carpenter C, Wayne G, Pauly J, Koh H, Connolly G. New cigarette brands with flavors that appeal to youth: Tobacco marketing strategies. Health Affairs. 2005;24:1601-1610.

Cataldo J, Malone R. False promises: The tobacco industry, "Low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2008;56(9):1716-1723. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01850.x

Charlesworth A, Glantz S. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking. A review. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1516-1528.

Collin J, Bialous S, Hirschhorn N. Chapter 7 - Opening a global gold mine: Globalization, gender, and transnational tobacco companies; In perspective - Women’s health under fire: Does it need to go up in smoke?; In perspective - globalization, gender, and the pandemic of disease in women caused by tobacco. In: Kickbusch I, Hartwig KA, List JM, editors. Globalization, women, and health in the 21st century. New York: Palgrave MacMillan; 2005.

Connolly GN, Behm I, Osaki Y, Wayne GF. The Impact of Menthol Cigarettes on Smoking Initiation among Non-Smoking Young Females in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011;8(1):1-14  

Cortese DK, Lewis MJ, Ling PM. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults. Journal of Adolescent Health 2009 Sep;45(3):268-280.

Cruz TB, Wright LT, Crawford G. The Menthol Marketing Mix: Targeted Promotions For Focus Communities in the United States. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2010 December 01;12(suppl 2):S147-S153.

Cummings K, Morley C, Hyland A, Horan J, Steger C, Leavell N. Marketing to America's youth: Evidence from corporate documents. Tobacco Control. 2002;11(Suppl 1):i5-17.

Damphousse F. Strategies de i'industrie du tubac: Marketing des cigarettes aupres des jeunes. Promotion and Education. 2005(Suppl 4):30-31.

Daube M. Forbidden fruit: are children tricked into wanting alcohol? The Conversation 2013 1 March.

Dewhirst T, Sparks R. Intertexuality, tobacco sponsorship of sports, and adolescent male smoking culture. A selective review of tobacco industry documents. Journal of Sport & Social Issues. 2003;27:372-399.

Dewhirst T, Lee W, Fong G, Ling P. Exporting an Inherently Harmful Product: The Marketing of Virginia Slims Cigarettes in the United States, Japan, and Korea. J.Bus.Ethics 2015 04/07:1-21.

Gardiner P. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2004;6(Suppl 1):S55-65.

Gauvin L. [tobacco industry strategies: Marketing cigarettes to young people.] [article in French]. Promotion and Education. 2005(Suppl 4):31-32, 56.

Germain D, Wakefield MA, Durkin SJ. Adolescents' Perceptions of Cigarette Brand Image: Does Plain Packaging Make a Difference? Journal of Adolescent Health 2010 4;46(4):385-392.

Hafez N, Ling P. How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: Implications for international tobacco control. Tobacco Control. 2005;14:262-271.

Hammond D. Smoking behaviour among young adults: Beyond youth prevention. Tobacco Control. 2005;14:181-185.

Hirshbein LD. Politics, Profit, and Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Case Study of Tobacco Use Disorder. American Journal of Public Health 2014:e1-e9.

Hirshbein LD. "We Mentally Ill Smoke a Lot": Identity, Smoking, and Mental Illness in America. Journal of Social History 2010 Fall2010;44(1):7-21.

Hirshbein LD. Smoking Privileges: Psychiatry, the Mentally Ill, and the Tobacco Industry in America. Rutgers University Press; 2015.

Ibrahim JK. The Tobacco Tug-of-War: Advertising and Counteradvertising Tobacco Products to Youth. Pediatric Allergy Immunology and Pulmonology. 2010 JUN;23(2):105-111.

Iglesias-Rios L, Parascandola M. A Historical Review of R. J. Reynolds' Strategies for Marketing Tobacco to Hispanics in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 2013 Mar 14.

Johnson DM, Wine LA, Zack S, Zimmer E, Wang JH, Weitzel-O'Neill PA, et al. Designing a tobacco counter-marketing campaign for African American youth. Tob Induc Dis. 2008;4(1):7. doi:10.1186/1617-9625-4-7

Klein J, St Clair S. Do candy cigarettes encourage young people to smoke? . BMJ. 2000;321:362-365.

Knight J, Chapman S. "Asian yuppies...Are always looking for something new and different": Creating a tobacco culture among young Asians. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(Suppl 2):ii22-29.

Kreslake J, Wayne G, Alpert H, Koh H, Connolly G. Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Public Health. 2008 Sep;98(9):1685-1692. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.125542

Krugman D, Quinn W, Youngjun S. Understanding the role of cigarette promotion and youth smoking in a changing marketing environment. Journal of Health Communications. 2005;10:261-278.

Landman A, Ling P, Glantz S. Tobacco industry youth smoking prevention programs: Protecting the industry and hurting tobacco control. American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92:917-30.

Lee K, Carpenter C, Challa C, Lee S, Connolly GN, Koh HK. The strategic targeting of females by transnational tobacco companies in South Korea following trade liberalisation. Global Health. 2009 Jan 30;5(1):2. doi:

Legacy. Tobacco Control in LGBT Communities. December 2012.  Available at:

Ling P, Glantz S. Why and how the tobacco industry sells cigarettes to young adults: Evidence from industry documents. American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92:908-16.

Ling P, Glantz S. Tobacco industry research on cessation. Recapturing young adults and other recent quitters. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2004;19:419-426.

Ling PM, Neilands TB, Glantz SA. Young Adult Smoking Behavior: A National Survey. Am J Prev Med 2009 5;36(5):389-394.e2.

Mandell L, Bialous S, Glantz S. Avoiding "Truth": Tobacco industry promotion of life skills training. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2006 Dec;39(6):868-79.

McCandless PM, Yerger VB, Malone RE. Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press. Am.J.Public Health 2011 Aug 18.

McDaniel PA, Malone RE. Creating the "Desired mindset": Philip Morris's efforts to improve its corporate image among women. Women Health. 2009 Jul-Aug;49(5):441-74.

Moodie C, Mackintosh AM, Hastings G, Ford A. Young adult smokers' perceptions of plain packaging: a pilot naturalistic study. Tobacco Control 2011 September 01;20(5):367-373.

Muggli M, Pollay R, Lew R, Joseph A. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: Results from the Minnesota tobacco document depository. Tobacco Control. 2002;11:201-209.

Offen N, Smith E, Malone R. "Tobacco industry targeting of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community: A white paper" (September 8, 2008). Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education 2008; Tobacco Control Policy Making: United States. Paper LGBT2008. Available at:

Perry C. The tobacco industry and underage youth smoking: Tobacco industry documents from the Minnesota litigation. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 1999;103:935-41.

Pollay R. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: Evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents. Tobacco Control. 2000;9:136-47.

Prochaska JJ. Failure to treat tobacco use in mental health and addiction treatment settings: A form of harm reduction? Drug Alcohol Depend; In Press, Corrected Proof.

Raebeck A, Campbell R, Balbach E. Unhealthy partnerships: the tobacco industry and African American and Latino labor organizations. J Iimmigrant Minority Health 2010 04;12(2):228-233.

Sebrie E, Glantz S. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: Tobacco industry "Youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America. American Journal of Public Health. 2007 Aug;97(8):1357-67. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.094128

Sepe E, Ling P, Glantz S. Smooth moves: Bar and nightclub tobacco promotions that target young adults. American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92:414-19.

Smith EA, Grundy Q, Malone RE. 'It's Not a Priority When We're in Combat': Public Health Professionals and Military Tobacco Control Policy. American Journal of Public Health 2015 04/01; 2015/03;105(4):660-664.

Smith EA, Malone RE. "Everywhere the Soldier Will Be": Wartime Tobacco Promotion in the US Military. Am J Public Health 2009 September;99(9).

Smith E, Malone R. Tobacco Promotion to Military Personnel: "The Plums are Here to be Plucked". Military Med. 2009 Aug;174(8):797-806. Available at:

Smith E, Malone R. The outing of Philip Morris: Advertising tobacco to gay men. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93:988-93.

Smith EA, Thomson K, Offen N, Malone RE. "If You Know You Exist, It's Just Marketing Poison": Meanings of Tobacco Industry Targeting in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Community. American Journal of Public Health 2008 June 1, 2008;98(6):996-1003.

Soto Mas F, Jacobson HE, Fernandez E. Tobacco industry strategies to attract young smokers in Spain: a review of companies' internal documents. Adicciones 2011;23(4):327-334.

Stevens P, Carlson L, Hinman J. An analysis of tobacco industry marketing to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations: Strategies for mainstream tobacco control and prevention. Health Promotion Practice. 2004;5(Suppl 3):129S-134.

Toll B, Ling P. The Virginia Slims identity crisis: An inside look at tobacco industry marketing to women. Tobacco Control. 2005;14:172-180.

Warner KE, Pollack H. The Nicotine Fix - America’s cigarette addiction may seem to be mostly over. But low-income Americans continue to smoke—and die—at alarming rates. A radical new strategy could help them quit once and for all. Nov 2014. The Atlantic.

Washington H. Burning love: Big tobacco takes aim at LGBT youths. American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92:1086-95.

Winickoff JP, Hartman L, Chen ML, Gottlieb M, Nabi-Burza E, DiFranza JR. Retail Impact of Raising Tobacco Sales Age to 21 Years. American Journal of Public Health 2014;104(11):e18-e21

Yerger VB, Cataldo JK, Malone RE. Older smokers could be the strongest supporters for U.S. government regulation of tobacco: a focus group study. Tob Induc Dis. 2013 Aug 17;11(1).

Yerger V, Daniel M, Malone R. Taking it to the streets: Responses of African American young adults to internal tobacco industry documents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2005;7:163-172.

Yerger V, Malone R. African American leadership groups: Smoking with the enemy. Tobacco Control. 2002;11:336-45.

Yerger V, Malone RE. Melanin and nicotine: A review of the literature. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2006;8(4):487-498.

Yerger V, Przewoznik J, Malone R. Racialized geography, corporate activity, and health disparities: Tobacco industry targeting of inner cities. Journal of Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18(4A):10-38.

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