Ingredients and Design

Ingredients and Design


Ahijevych K, Garrett BE. The Role of Menthol in Cigarettes as a Reinforcer of Smoking Behavior. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2010 December 01;12(suppl 2):S110-S116  

Alpert H, Carpenter C, Connolly G, Rees V, Wayne G. "Fire safer" Cigarettes. The effect of the New York State cigarette fire safety standard on ignition propensity, smoke toxicity and the consumer market. Harvard School of Public Health. 2005.

Alpert H, OConnor R, Spalletta R, Connolly G. Recent Advances in Cigarette Ignition Propensity Research and Development. Fire Technology 2010 04/01;46(2):275-289.

Anderson SJ. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behaviour: a review of tobacco industry documents. Tobacco Control 2011 May 01;20(Suppl 2):ii49-ii56.

Barry RA, Hiilamo H, Glantz SA. Waiting for the Opportune Moment: The Tobacco Industry and Marijuana Legalization. Milbank Q. 2014;92(2):207-242.

Borland R, Savvas S. Effects of stick design features on perceptions of characteristics of cigarettes. Tobacco Control 2013 September 01;22(5):331-337.

Callahan P, Roe S, Hawthorne M. Playing with Fire. 2012. Chicago Tribune.

Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Designed for Addiction How the Tobacco Industry Has Made Cigarettes More Addictive, More Attractive to Kids and Even More Deadly. [PDF] June 23 2014.

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Chapman S. "Keep a low profile": Pesticide residue, additives, and freon use in Australian tobacco manufacturing. Tobacco Control. 2003;14:321-327.

Chen C, Luo W, Isabelle LM, Gareau KD, Pankow JF. The Stereoisomers of Menthol in Selected Tobacco Products. A Brief Report. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2011 Mar 29.

Chen C, Isabelle LM, Pickworth WB, Pankow JF. Levels of mint and wintergreen flavorants: Smokeless tobacco products vs. confectionery products. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2010 2;48(2):755-763.

Connolly G, Albert H, Rees V, Carpenter C, Wayne G, Vallone D, et al. Effect of the New York State cigarette fire safety standard on ignition propensity,smoke constitutents, and the consumer market. Tobacco Control. 2005;14:321-327.

Connolly GN, Behm I, Osaki Y, Wayne GF. The Impact of Menthol Cigarettes on Smoking Initiation among Non-Smoking Young Females in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011;8(1):1-14 

Cook B, Wayne G, Keithly L, Connolly G. One size does not fit all: How the tobacco industry has altered cigarette design to target consumer groups with specific psychological and psychosocial needs. Addiction. 2003;98:1047-61.

Cummings K, Morley C, Hyland A. Failed promises of the cigarette industry and its effect on consumer misperceptions about the health risks of smoking. Tobacco Control. 2002;11(Suppl 1):i110-i117.

Dunsby J, Bero L. A nicotine delivery device without the nicotine? Tobacco industry development of low nicotine cigarettes. Tobacco Control. 2004;13:362-369.

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Gan Q, Lu W, Xu J, Li X, Goniewicz M, Benowitz NL, et al. Chinese 'low-tar' cigarettes do not deliver lower levels of nicotine and carcinogens. Tobacco Control 2010 October 01;19(5):374-379.

Garten S, Falkner R. Continual smoking of mentholated cigarettes may mask the early warning symptoms of respiratory disease. Preventive Medicine. 2003;37:291-96.

Garten S, Falkner R. Role of mentholated cigarettes in increased nicotine dependence and greater risk of tobacco-attributable disease. Preventive Medicine. 2004;38(6):793-98.

Givel M. A comparison of US and Norwegian regulation of coumarin in tobacco products. Tobacco Control. 2003;12:401-405.

Givel M. In Search of the Less Hazardous Cigarette. International Journal of Health Services 2011;41(1):77-94  

Givelber D. Pure smoke: Products liability, innovation, and the search for the safe cigarette. Tulane Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property. 2005;7:1-49.

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Hammond D, Collishaw N, Callard C. Tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and product design. Lancet. 2006 4 Mar;367:781-87.

Hammond D, Wiebel F, Kozlowski L, al. e. Revising the machine smoking regime for cigarette emissions: Implications for tobacco control policy. Tobacco Control. 2007;16:8-14. doi: 10.1136/tc.2005.015297

Harris B. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'. Tobacco Control 2011 May;20 Suppl 1:i10-16.

Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Donny E, Henningfield J, Zeller M. Nicotine Reduction: Strategic Research Plan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2012 October 25.

Hatsukami DK, Perkins KA, LeSage MG, Ashley DL, Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, et al. Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions. Tobacco Control 2010 October 01;19(5):e1-e10.

Henningfield J, Benowitz N, Ahijevych K, Garrett B, Connolly G, Wayne G. Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2003;5:9-11.

Henningfield J, Benowitz N, Connolly G, Davis R, Gray N, Myers M, et al. Reducing tobacco addiction through tobacco product regulation. Tobacco Control. 2004;13:132-35.

Henningfield J, Pankow J, Garrett B. Ammonia and other chemical base tobacco additives and cigarette nicotine delivery: Issues and research needs. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2004;6:199-205.

Hurt R, Robertson C. Prying open the door to the tobacco industry's secrets about nicotine. JAMA. 1998;280:1173-81.

Karagueuzian HS, White C, Sayre J, Norman A. Cigarette Smoke Radioactivity and Lung Cancer Risk. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2011 September 27.

Keithly L, Wayne G, Cullen D, Connolly G. Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: A case study in cigarette additives. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2005;7:761-771.

King B, Borland R, Abdul-Salaam S, Polzin G, Ashley D, Watson C, et al. Divergence between strength indicators in packaging and cigarette engineering: a case study of Marlboro varieties in Australia and the USA. Tobacco Control 2010 October 01;19(5):398-402.

King B, Borland R. The "Low-tar" strategy and the changing construction of Australian cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2004;6:85-94.

King W, Carter S, Borland R, Chapman S, Gray N. The Australian tar derby: The origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(Suppl 3):iii61-70.

Klausner K. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective. Tobacco Control 2011 May 01;20(Suppl 2):ii12-ii19. 

Kozlowski L, O'Connor R. Official tar tests are misleading: Use a two-stage compensating test. Lancet. 2000;355:2150-2161.

Kozlowski L, O'Connor R. Cigarette filter ventilation is a defective design because of misleading taste, bigger puffs, and blocked vents. Tobacco Control. 2002;11(Suppl 1):i40-50.

Kozlowski LT, Whetzel CA, Stellman SD, O'Connor RJ. Ignoring puff counts: Another shortcoming of the Federal Trade Commission cigarette testing programme. Tobacco Control. 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 1:i6-9. doi:10.1136/tc.2007.020602

Kreslake JM, Yerger VB. Tobacco industry knowledge of the role of menthol in chemosensory perception of tobacco smoke. Nicotine Tob.Res. 2010 Dec;12 Suppl 2:S98-101  

Laugesen M, Fowles J. Scope for regulation of cigarette smoke toxicity: The case for including charcoal filters. New Zealand Medical Journal. 2005 15 Apr;118:1213. Available:

Leavell N. The low tar lie. Tobacco Control. 1999;8:433-39.

Lee YO, Glantz SA. Menthol: putting the pieces together. Tobacco Control 2011 May 01;20(Suppl 2):ii1-ii7.

Lewis M, Wackowski D. Dealing with an innovative industry: A look at flavored cigarettes promoted by mainstream brands. American Journal of Public Health. 2006;96(E-pub ahead of print).

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May H, Wigand J. Why governments should compel the tobacco industry to disclose their ingredients. Essays in Philosophy. 2005;6:(no page numbers).

McDaniel P, Solomon G, Malone R. Taste-testing pesticide treated tobacco: The ethics of industry experimentation using employees. American Journal of Public Health. 2006;96:37-46.

McGuire A. To burn or not to burn. An advocate's report from the field. Injury Prevention. 2005;11:264-66.

Muggli M, Ebbert J, Robertson C, Hurt R. Waking a sleeping giant: The tobacco industry's response to the polonium-210 issue. American Journal of Public Health. 2008 Sep;98(9):1643-1650. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.130963

Nye D. Regulatory myopia and public health: 'tough' tobacco control? Competition & Change. 2004;8:305-321.

O'Connor R, Giovino G, Fix B, Hyland A, Hammond D, Fong G, et al. Smokers' reactions to reduced ignition propensity cigarettes. Tobacco Control. 2006;15:45-49.

O'Connor RJ, Hurley PJ. Existing technologies to reduce specific toxicant emissions in cigarette smoke. Tobacco Control. 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 1:i39-48. doi:10.1136/tc.2007.023689

Pankow J. A consideration of the role of gas/particle partitioning in the deposition of nicotine and other tobacco smoke compounds in the respiratory tract. Chemical Research Toxicology. 2001;14:1465-81.

Parascandola M. "Safer" Cigarettes. In: Goodman J, Norton M, Parascandola M, editors. Scribner’s turning points in history. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Macmillan/Scribner; 2004. p. 505-509.

Pauly JL, Paszkiewicz G. Cigarette smoke, bacteria, mold, microbial toxins, and chronic lung inflammation. Journal of Oncology 2011.

Pauly J, Mepani A, Lesses J, Cummings K, Streck R. Cigarettes with defective filters marketed for 40 years: What Philip Morris never told smokers. Tobacco Control 2002;11(Suppl 1):i51-61.

Pauly JL, Rees V, O'Connor R. Philip Morris clinical study of carbon filtered cigarettes challenged by nondisclosure issues. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Jul 31.

Pollay R, Dewhirst T. A premiere example of the illusion of harm reduction cigarettes in the 1990s. Tobacco Control. 2003;12:322-32.

Proctor RN. Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition. UC Press; 2012.

Purkis SW, Meger M, Wuttke R. A review of current smoke constituent measurement activities and aspects of yield variability. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 2011.

Rabinoff M, Caskey N, Rissling A, Park C. Pharmacological and chemical effects of cigarette additives. American Journal of Public Health. 2007 Nov;97(11):1981-91. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.078014

Rees V, Ferris Wayne G, Thomas B, Connolly G. Physical design analysis and mainstream smoke constituent yields of the new potential reduced exposure product, Marlboro ultrasmooth. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2007 Nov;9(11):1197-1206. doi:10.1080/14622200701648375

Rees VW, Kreslake JM, Wayne GF, O'Connor RJ, Cummings KM, Connolly GN. Role of cigarette sensory cues in modifying puffing topography. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Feb 24.

Rego B. The polonium brief: A hidden history of cancer, radiation, and the tobacco industry. Isis. 2009;100(3):453-484.

Salgado MV, Glantz SA. Direct disease-inducing effects of menthol through the eyes of tobacco companies. Tobacco Control 2011 May 01;20(Suppl 2):ii44-ii48.

Scharfstein J. Blowing smoke: How cigarette manufacturers argues that nicotine is not addictive. Tobacco Control. 1999;8:210-13.

Schulze A, Potschke-Langer M, Bertram B. Die tabakindustriedokumente i. Chemische verãnderung an zigaretten und tabakabhãngigkeit. Rote reihe band drei.  Tabakprãvention und Tabakkontrolle; 2005; Deutscheskrebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg 2005.

Slade J, Bero L, Hanauer P, Barnes D, Glantz S. Nicotine and addiction: The Brown and Williamson documents. JAMA. 1995;274:225-33.

Sokol NA, Kennedy RD, Connolly GN. The Role of Cocoa As a Cigarette Additive: Opportunities for Product Regulation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014 March 08.

Squier CA, Mantz MJ, Wertz PW. Effect of menthol on the penetration of tobacco carcinogens and nicotine across porcine oral mucosa ex vivo. Nicotine Tobacco Res. 2010 Jul;12(7):763-767.

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Vagg R, Chapman S. Nicotine analogues: A review of tobacco industry research interests. Addiction. 2005;100:701-712.

Velicer C, Lempert LK, Glantz S. Cigarette company trade secrets are not secret: an analysis of reverse engineering reports in internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation. Tobacco Control 2014 June 11.

Wayne GF, Carpenter CM. Tobacco industry manipulation of nicotine dosing. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009(192):457-85. doi:

Wayne G, Connolly G. How cigarette design can affect youth initiation into smoking: Camel cigarettes 1983-93. Tobacco Control. 2002;11(Suppl 1):i32-39.

Wayne GF, Connolly GN. Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market. Tobacco Control 2009 Aug;18(4):302-309.

Wayne G, Connolly G. Application, function, and effects of menthol in cigarettes: A survey of tobacco industry documents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2004;6(Suppl 1):S43-54.

Wayne G, Connolly G, Henningfield J. Brand differences of free-base nicotine delivery in cigarette smoke: The view of the tobacco industry documents. Tobacco Control. 2006;13:362-369.

Wayne G, Connolly G, Henningfield J, Farone W. Tobacco industry research and efforts to manipulate smoke particle size: Implications for product regulation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008 Apr;10(4):613-25. doi:10.1080/14622200801978698

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Xiao Z, Lu JR. Strategies for enhancing fermentative production of acetoin: A review. Biotechnol. Adv. 2014(0).

Yerger VB. Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective. Tobacco Control 2011 May 01;20(Suppl 2):ii29-ii36.

Yerger VB, McCandless PM. Menthol sensory qualities and smoking topography: a review of tobacco industry documents. Tobacco Control 2011 May 01;20(Suppl 2):ii37-ii43.

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